The Impact of the EU-UK Trade Agreement on Caribbean Exporters
The UK’s departure from the EU customs union and singe market has created new trade challenges along triangular supply chains where goods have to cross on EU/UK border prior to delivery to the final customers. This affects both Caribbean-to-UK-to-EU and Caribbean-to-EU-to-UK supply chains. Agri-food products are most seriously affected since these products face the highest MFN tariffs, strict phytosanitary import controls and are often more commercially sensitive to delivery delays. While many Caribbean export sectors are affected, the worst affected products appear to be sugar, rum, fruit and vegetables (including bananas), fisheries products and to a lesser degree cocoa-based products. The current arrangements have disproportionately large effect on small firms than larger exporters. Significantly, policy initiatives can facilitate private sector adjustments and mitigate challenges faced by Caribbean exporters.